Top dressing and care of plums in autumn
Every gardener understands that after fruiting, in late summer - early autumn, fruit trees need rest, pruning, and recuperation for the upcoming wintering. Helping them gain strength for the future harvest is the task of people, but you need to know exactly what top dressing and when it is best to apply for plums in the soil in the fall, so as not to harm garden crops.
Why plum autumn dressing
Fruiting trees directly depends on proper care and nutrition. During the spring-summer period, the tree is depleted, giving all its strength to the harvest, and therefore the autumn feeding absolutely necessary and is the key to next year's harvest. Plum is no exception to the general rule; it also needs a number of essential nutrients.
Almost all fruit shrubs form flower buds in the fall, after harvest, which will bear fruit in the next season.
To the bush wintered well, saved as many eyes as possible, you need to add a set of necessary substances in the fall. If this is not done, you may be late with spring feeding - the tree will not survive the winter and may lose some of the fruit-bearing branches.
Timing to fertilize in autumn
When is the best time to apply fertilizers, and which ones? First of all, it should be noted that if the plum was planted according to all the rules and the necessary substances were introduced during planting, first three years young seedling no need to feed.
If the tree is already fruiting, then you need to fertilize yearly... Everything that is brought under the tree is placed in the near-stem holes, along a radius of 1.5 meters, and around the young seedlings - in a ring, departing from the trunk 15-25 cm.
In order for the root system to have time to assimilate all the nutrients, it is necessary to feed a month before the onset of cold weather.
How to feed plums in autumn
Fruiting plums and young seedlings that have reached the age of three must first of all be supplied with a sufficient amount of organic fertilizers - rotted manure, compost... They have a beneficial effect on both the soil structure and the tree itself:
- nourish the root system well, restore its vitality;
- have a beneficial effect on growth;
- help to increase the yield;
- prevent soil mineralization, keeping the structure "alive" and loose.
Fresh manure cannot be used in autumn, and rotted (humus) is distributed around the trunk at the rate of 7-8kg / 1sq.m, soil loosen by 15-20 cm... Pig manure and poultry droppings are best set aside until spring, as they contain a large amount of nitrogen.
It is very often recommended to apply urea to the same area along with humus - no more than 20 g, since rotted manure loses most of the nitrogen.
Ordinary ash, especially from the combustion of deciduous trees, straw is the cheapest balanced mineral fertilizer.
Wood ash contains 17 trace elements that enrich the soil and nourish plants. In addition, ash normalizes the acid balance, and plums are very fond of alkaline soils.
For 1 sq. M is enough 250g ash... To reduce acidity, and significantly increase the yield of plums, the introduction of a mixture will help - 1 bucket of humus + 1 glass of fluff (lime) evenly distribute around the tree, loosen the soil and water.
Potassium is necessary for the plum just before winter, since promotes fluid excretion, thereby increasing frost resistance. There is a lot of it in manure with rotted straw bedding; it can also be applied in its pure form, diluted with water at the rate of 30 g per 1 sq. M.
The plum phosphorus must have enough time to accumulate until the next harvest, so it must be applied in the fall. This trace element strengthens the root system and promotes the accumulation of sugar and protein in tree sap. For this, bone meal is used - 50g / 1sq.m.
These fertilizers contain several useful elements that plums need in the fall: phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, permissible amount of nitrogen... They are also convenient because they easily dissolve in water and are introduced as a liquid top dressing: dilute 250-300 g in 10 liters, add at the rate of 60 g / 1 sq.m. The dose of superphosphate is halved.
Together with phosphate fertilizer, you can apply potassium magnesium - 100-120g for each tree. Potassium and magnesium contribute to the normal development of young shoots and fruits. The lack of elements will be indicated by the red-brown color of the plum leaves.
The tree needs calcium for the development and growth of its root system. Superphosphate fertilizer contains a sufficient amount of it. On acidic soils, it can be applied as an independent feeding, since it contributes to a balanced accumulation of iron and manganese in the soil - the main sources of the oxidation process.
Calcium sulfate, nitrate or chloride diluted with water in the amount of 25g / 10l. By the way, if you used lime to deoxidize the soil, then this will also be enough (after all, lime is calcium carbonate).
To protect the plum from fungal infections and other diseases, you need to feed it iron... Foliar dressing will be the most effective - you just need to spray it with a solution of ferrous sulfate.
Dolomite flour is added together with fluff lime or ash. She's well reduces soil acidity, supplies plenty of calcium and magnesium.
The oversaturation with mineral fertilizers also negatively affects the growth, development and fruiting of trees and horticultural crops, as well as their shortage. Therefore, it is important to apply the required amount of only those fertilizers that are needed specifically for your garden.
The state of the tree will tell you what it needs. Only organic matter can be introduced under young trees in the fall, and the rest - gradually, in the form of one-time dressings. Up to three components are added under adult plums, along with compost or humus. The soil must be loosened well and watered abundantly. After that, the ground around the tree is mulched.
After this preparation, your trees will be protected throughout the winter and will produce a wonderful harvest next year.
In order to ensure a good harvest of plums for the next year, it is necessary to dig up the soil and at the same time apply the appropriate fertilizers. This procedure is carried out at a distance of one meter from the tree trunk. The soil should be dug to a depth of no more than 30 centimeters.
By the way! Digging the soil can be carried out only the next year after planting the crop.
There are several types of fertilizers that are allowed to be applied under the plum in the fall. In most cases it is recommended application of a mixture of humus, wood ash and superphosphate... Gardeners also advise adding small amounts of urea.
Plum belongs to the category of moisture-loving plants, therefore, she needs to provide abundant watering in the autumn. At this time, appropriate fertilization is required. For the procedure, it is desirable use at least 35 liters of water... Watering is carried out until severe frosts. Otherwise, it can negatively affect wintering.
A variety of pests can be found under the hidden scales of the tree bark. To eliminate them, it is recommended to carry out cleaning the tree trunk from scales. For this purpose, it is advised to use a special stiff metal brush. During this procedure, you should have a number of insecticides, the action of which is aimed at eliminating pests. If they are found, there is a need for mandatory spraying of the plant.
Preparing plums for winter consists in whitewashing the trunk, which provides protection from pests and limits the possibility of negative effects of sunlight on the tree in winter. For this procedure, it is optimal to use a solution of lime and mullein.
Video: how to prepare a plum for winter
How to determine if you need feeding
Novice gardeners often ask how to determine what kind of dressing is needed for the plum, when to carry it out. In fact, everything is simple, just take a close look at the plants.
- If plum trees grow poorly, barely bear fruit, and the leaves turn gray, the problem is a lack of phosphorus.
- If the veins and tips of the leaves turn brown, the plant requires magnesium.
- Young shoots grow very poorly, the leaves turn brown and curl up if the trees lack potassium.
- When the fruits become smaller, the ovary and leaves fall off, the foliage becomes lighter, nitrogen fertilization is necessary.
If you find these signs in a timely manner, you can immediately start feeding, add the necessary elements, preventing the death of the plant. You can apply complex feeding. Fertilizers are applied according to the following scheme:
Pruning plums in the fall: scheme and rules
The scheme for pruning a plum tree in autumn looks like this:
- The tree is carefully examined for weak, dry branches affected by infections.
- After that, pruning is carried out for all diseased areas.
- Fast growing plum shoots are cut a little more than half - about 2/3.
- The young plum is shortened in height by about a third, if this pruning is the first for the fruit tree.
- The crown is thinned out, giving it the correct geometric shape.
After the end of the work, all trimmed branches and foliage are collected and burned to prevent rotting and the spread of possible infections.
When forming the crown of a garden plum, it is recommended to choose the shape of the bowl - that is, to leave several main skeletal branches extending from the main trunk at an angle of about 120 degrees. There should be a decent distance between these branches - at least half a meter.
When can plum be pruned
Despite the fact that the calendar autumn lasts three months, pruning of plums in the fall should be carried out in September. It is necessary to wait until the leaves fall so that the branches of the tree are exposed.
However, it is impossible and too delayed with the procedure - pruning is performed before the arrival of cold weather and frost. If pruning is too late, the cuts on the plum will not have time to heal, and frost will damage the health of the tree.
Pruning plums in the fall for beginners
As a rule, autumn pruning is carried out simultaneously in several forms at once:
- Sanitary pruning - aimed at removing diseased and infected branches.
- Formative pruning - to give the desired shape to the crown.
- Restorative pruning - in the process, branches that have dried up or broken during the spring-summer period are eliminated.
There are several ways to properly cut the plum in the fall.
- If you want to reduce the number of shoots and leave only the most promising ones, pruning on the side shoot is used. It is necessary to select the strongest fruiting branch and cut the plum 2 - 3 mm above the place where the shoot is attached to the trunk.
- If you need to shorten the shoots a little, without cutting them off completely, "pruning for the kidney" is used. It is necessary to select a high-quality bud in the right place of the shoot, and then remove everything above it with a pruner at a cut angle of 45 degrees. In this case, the upper edge of the cut should be in line with the upper point of the selected kidney.
- If a diseased or dry branch needs to be removed entirely, then a "ring cut" is used. This means that the cut line of the branch is not flush with the trunk, but at the level of a small annular bulge where the branch is attached to the trunk.
It is only necessary to trim the plum with the correct tools. You will need to arm yourself with a pruner and a delimber, a garden knife, a garden hacksaw, and preferably two - more and less. For easy access to high-lying branches, a stepladder is useful.
After trimming, the cuts must be treated with garden varnish or with an ordinary solution of copper sulfate.
Is it possible to cut off the crown of a plum
Novice gardeners are often afraid to trim the top for fear of damaging the entire tree. However, in fact, you can cut the plum from the top of the head - even necessary. Otherwise, the tree may grow too powerfully, and much more effort will have to be put into pruning. In addition, the tops of the heads, not engaged in fruiting, interfere with the development of the plant with strong growth and negatively affect the yield.
Is the plum cut in winter
Plum is usually pruned in autumn, spring or summer - during the warm seasons of the year. However, sometimes winter pruning is also practiced, which has the following advantages:
- There are no buds on the plum during this period, the vegetation processes do not proceed, respectively, the tree does not experience stress from pruning.
- Frozen shoots are sawn more easily, during the pruning process so-called “scuffs” rarely occur - inaccurate wood chips near the cut.
But of course, cutting the plum in winter is possible only if certain conditions are met. To carry out the work, it is better to choose the middle of February, while a thaw is necessary with a temperature not lower, but better above + 10 degrees. Thus, winter pruning is only suitable for southern areas with mild, warm winters.
For a tree, pruning is stressful. To maintain the plant, it is necessary to feed. It is obligatory to dig up tree trunks and treat trees from parasites and diseases.
There are several mandatory rules for pruning plums:
pruning is carried out regularly, an unattended plum will grow very quickly
do not cut off the top of a young tree, this leads to increased growth from the cut of new shoots upwards
hemp should not be left, this is a source of tree infection
a well and correctly executed cut will overgrow itself, in no case should a fresh wound be covered with paint, the cut begins to rot
pruning should be done only with a very sharp tool, this will help to avoid additional damage to the tree.
Careful annual maintenance will help you get a bountiful harvest and prolong the life of the plant.
Prepare a pit in the fall ...
It is better to plant a plum in a permanent place in the spring - before bud break. However, the landing pits are prepared in September-October. Well-lit and warmer slopes are selected for culture - from the southeast to the west. The northwest and east are less suitable because of the cold winds in winter. In addition, in cold areas, plants stop fruiting.
On good loamy soil, planting holes are dug 50-70 cm wide and 40-50 cm deep.On poor loams, success in growing plum trees can be achieved only with partial soil replacement, while planting holes are dug much larger in size - 2 m in diameter and 1 m deep A layer of clay 5-10 cm thick is placed on the bottom, which is well tamped, then filled with fertile soil.
Protection of young plums and seedlings
Young trees are most susceptible to frost, they also often become prey for rodents (mice or hares) in winter. Whitewashing the trunk serves as a good protection against frost cracks and March sunburns, but from severe frosts, the trunks of young trees are wrapped up, tied to them with coniferous spruce branches or roofing felt. In the latter case, it is advisable to add reflective foil. In cold regions, the youngest trees are harbored more seriously: equip "hut", constructing a frame of boards, which is stretched non-woven materials.
For the most capricious trees you have to build an individual "house"
Coniferous spruce branches perfectly protects trunks from rodents (nylon tights do not always save them from them).It should be remembered that mice usually make their way to the trees under the snow (and therefore it is advisable to trample the snow near the trunks), and hares can stand on two legs (therefore, the height of the shelter should be about a meter).
Video: preparing trees for winter
Plum trees do not always endure harsh winters easily. Therefore, in the fall, a number of measures should be taken to increase its frost resistance. They are not difficult at all, but must be done on time and correctly.