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Correct cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse from planting to harvest

Correct cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse from planting to harvest


Cucumbers are a very popular and demanded garden crop. Everyone loves to enjoy juicy crispy cucumbers: both adults and children. Especially such vegetables come to taste after the long winter cold, when the body needs fresh vegetables to replenish vitamin deficiencies after spring avitaminosis. In order to harvest ripe cucumbers as early as possible, you can successfully cultivate them in a greenhouse.

Subject to the conditions of correct planting, difficulties will not arise either in the Krasnodar Territory, Kuban, or in the Urals. In the northern regions, you can arrange a greenhouse system or plant it under a film. You can grow high-yielding varieties without any secrets.

Features of growing cucumbers in greenhouses

Growing this crop in a greenhouse will not give you much trouble. After all, this completely unpretentious plants... Subject to all the requirements for growing and caring for the greenhouse, you can get fruits of excellent quality and excellent taste, the yield of which even will exceed the yield of cucumbers in the open field.

Basic requirements for growing cucumber in a polycarbonate greenhouse

To harvest a good harvest of excellent fruits in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you must adhere to certain requirements and technologies:

  1. Ventilation... This is a prerequisite. The plant needs sufficient oxygen access, only in this case, the holes should be placed so that there are no drafts.
  2. The temperature in the greenhouse should not drop below 13 degrees and rise above 25 degrees.
  3. If possible, it is better to cover the greenhouse with glass, the glass cover will provide sufficient sunlight access to the plants.

The correct time to plant a crop in a greenhouse

You can plant cucumbers in a greenhouse in two ways: seed and seedlings.

Seedlings are planted in a greenhouse when the seedlings already have 4-5 real leaves and passed the necessary stabbing.

This is usually done in the beginning of April... But it all depends on the region of cultivation. Of course, the timing of the landing in Krasnodar and Siberia will differ significantly.

Regardless of the growing region, plants are planted in the greenhouse only if the soil is already sufficiently warmed up and the air temperature in the greenhouse not lower than 15-18 degrees, otherwise it will be difficult to reanimate it.

In the cold regions of our country, this temperature can be achieved by heating greenhouses. By seed, the plants are planted in a greenhouse in the second half of April.

Step-by-step instructions for caring for the first shoots

The first shoots usually appear within 5-7 days.

Immediately after they appear, they need to be provided with decent care:

  1. You must strictly monitor soil temperature... It should not be lower than 12 degrees, otherwise tender and vulnerable seedlings may turn black and disappear.
  2. Young plants very painfully react to temperature changes. It is necessary to regularly maintain a stable air temperature in a greenhouse: not lower than 18 degrees.
  3. No drafts is also a prerequisite for the active growth of young seedlings.

Lighting

Adequate lighting is a prerequisite for growing cucumbers. Culture needs good lighting.

Depending on the region and seasonality of growing cucumbers, in case of insufficient sunlight, an additional artificial greenhouse lighting.

For these purposes, light relays are perfect, which themselves react to a decrease in the intensity of natural light and turn on automatically. But if it is not possible to use automation, you can use any lighting fixtures.

Cucumbers need continuous good lighting for at least 12 hours. But they also need complete darkness. In the dark, plants should be kept daily for 6-8 hours.

Watering

Cucumbers are 90% water and love moisture very much... Watering the plants should be timely. Before flowering, it is necessary to water the seedlings every 5 days. In this case, the soil must be constantly loosened.

During the flowering period, watering should be increased and carried out. at least 2 times a week, and on hot days and every other day. According to the norm, it is worth watering with settled water at room temperature. It is necessary to water the soil, but not the stems and leaves.

Top dressing

This vegetable crop is very fond of all kinds of fertilizers. You need to feed the cucumbers during the entire growing season. For these purposes, rotted organic matter, ash, mineral fertilizers are suitable.

You can fertilize the plant Once a week, throughout the growing season. Only before the flowering period a small amount of fertilizer is used, during the flowering period it is slightly increased, and the largest doses of fertilizers are applied during the period of active fruiting.

Use of mineral fertilizers must be strictly adhering to the instructions for use.

Care for grown cucumbers

Garter

Cucumbers in the greenhouse grow very quickly, and it is necessary to tie them up every week... To do this, the upper processes of the cucumber lash are tied up with twine. The lower shoots are best trimmed, leaving only 2-3 sinuses for pollination.

Pinch

Pinching or pruning is necessary to increase yields and improve the palatability of the fruit. During the flowering period, both male and female types of inflorescences are formed on cucumber lashes.

Male inflorescences - barren flowers are necessary delete, and women - pinch... This will increase yields and extend the fruiting times of your crop if properly cared for.

Possible difficulties

Difficulties in growing cucumbers in a greenhouse can arise in the event of insufficient lighting and temperature changes.

If you are growing varieties that require pollination, be sure to provide bees with access to the greenhouse... But if you adhere to all the rules and recommendations, then no difficulties threaten you and the plant will thank you with an excellent harvest.

Testimonials

Vladimir: novice vegetable grower. For the first time I tried to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse. I was worried that I could not cope, but everything turned out fine, strictly adhered to the recommendations and for the second week we have been collecting an excellent harvest of crispy cucumbers.

Lyubov Pavlovna: retired. I have been working in the garden for a long time, since I retired. She grew cucumbers in the open field. But this year, for the first time, my son built a greenhouse for me. I decided to plant cucumbers in it. I did everything right and now I canning delicious cucumbers for the winter.

Vasily: an entrepreneur. I have been growing cucumbers in a greenhouse for several years now. The yield and taste of greenhouse fruits are excellent, the presentation is also, I sell my products on the market, I have my regular customers. I'm happy with everything.

Vera: a housewife. The first year I tried to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse. My hopes for a high harvest did not come true, the harvest was meager. I tried to find out the reason for myself and found it: the variety required pollination, but I did not provide access to the bees.

Nikolay: retired. We grow greenhouse cucumbers with my wife. We provide ourselves and our children with an excellent harvest. In the greenhouse, the yield is higher than in the open field.

Adhering to all the rules and recommendations, you will get an excellent harvest of excellent cucumbers grown in a greenhouse.


Half of the success of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse is choosing the right variety. To date, dozens of hybrids have been bred, which are distinguished by long-term fruiting and are excellent for planting indoors.

All varieties of cucumbers can be divided into two main groups: bee-pollinated and self-pollinated. It is recommended to plant the latter in greenhouses, which saves the gardener from the need to attract pollinating insects to get a good harvest. Self-pollination of cucumbers is also allowed, but this is possible only with a small planting area.

It is tempting to use self-harvested seeds when growing cucumbers in greenhouses, but often hybrids do not retain their grade, which leads to a significant deterioration in yield indicators. Purchased seeds are of a quality, properly processed and pickled, so they do not need any preparation before planting.

When choosing a specific variety, it is necessary to take into account the timing of sowing and ripening of the crop, resistance to diseases and insect pests. Different varieties of cucumbers can differ significantly in their size, so it is necessary to take into account the available height of the greenhouse. The most popular for indoor use are such hybrids as White Angel, Pomegranate, Athlete, Regatta, Annushka, Hercules and Dynamite.


Having not received a crop, one can, of course, refer to a lean year. But it is much better to find a way to get around the weather surprises and protect the plants from the cold and rain.

This year was not a cucumber one. The spring is long and wet. Summers are cold, with large fluctuations in daily temperatures in July - 20 ° during the day, 7 ° at night. Conditions for growing cucumbers in the open field are very unfavorable. For growing cucumbers, I organized 2 ridges 1 × 6 m and a greenhouse (film shelter) 3 × 4 m.

In the greenhouse, the thermal regime was maintained as follows. I tried to use cut and dried grass as biofuel. To do this, at the end of the greenhouse opposite from the entrance, I arranged a pit 1 × 1 m in size and 60 cm deep. The cut grass, laid in this pit with a layer of 70-80 cm and poured with warm water, quickly warms up. The temperature can reach 60 °! This biological "heat gun" warmed the air in the greenhouse. Even at night it was 5-8 ° higher here than outside. This technique helped me preserve cucumbers in the greenhouse when frozen. June 16 hit minus 2 °, and the neighbors' cucumbers planted by that time in the beds died.

Over the summer, autumn and winter, the grass in such a hole turns into compost, which next year, during the spring digging, I put into the ridges of the greenhouse ... and fill the hole itself with new grass.

In the open ground on the ridges, I grow cucumbers according to the technology developed by many years of experience. It allows you to ensure a good harvest of cucumbers, even in cold summers.

My deepest conviction is the harvest of cucumbers must be formed starting from the seeds... In nature, all seeds are necessarily tested in winter cold.

This increases their vitality. It is not for nothing that since ancient times the peasants in Russia at the end of February for 3 days exposed even cereal grains (wheat, rye, barley, oats) intended for sowing in the morning frost. Cold treatment increased the yield of the plants.

Following nature, I place the cucumber seeds intended for sowing in the refrigerator for 3 months. Practice has shown that this allows you to get plants with a large number of female flowers, that is, more productive. And in the open field they better tolerate sudden cold snap (we are talking about varietal seeds. Hybrids, and even more so partheno-carpic hybrids, and without such processing give a sufficient number of ovaries. - From the editor).

I sow cucumber seeds at the beginning of the second half of May in a greenhouse dry, without soaking or sprouting. I sow some of the seeds in the greenhouse immediately to a permanent place in the center of the greenhouse ridge at a distance of 70 cm from one another. I spread the other seeds between them. These plants will subsequently be transplanted into open ground. After sowing the seeds, I water the ridges with a weak solution of potassium permanganate to protect the seedlings from fungal diseases.

I dig up ridges of open ground 100 cm wide, level them with a rake and make trenches about 30 cm deep and wide every 70 cm across.I fill them half with fresh manure, and pour fertile soil on top, adding 1 glass of ash to it. Cucumbers work best on fresh manure. However, it should be remembered that large doses of nitrogen fertilizers (which include manure) contribute to the formation of voids in the fruits. I neutralize its action with a phosphorus-potassium fertilizer - ash.

IMPORTANT. I plant cucumber seedlings in open ground not according to the calendar, not according to the size of the seedlings, not according to the number of leaves in the seedlings, but after the lilac begins to bloom. It is she who indicates that the threat of frost has passed, and the soil has warmed up to 15-16 °, necessary for the successful growth and development of cucumber plants. One day in 2014, I hurried and planted cucumber seedlings on the ridges on May 31, and on June 9 there was a frost, and all the cucumber plants died. Lilacs bloomed that year ... June 12th. In 2017, the lilac bloomed on June 19, and many gardeners did not wait and planted the sometimes overgrown cucumber seedlings earlier. And what? June turned out to be cold, during the day the temperature rarely rose to 18 °, more often it was from 12 ° to 15 °. For cucumbers, such weather is destructive, and almost all plants in the open field then died.

On the day of planting cucumber seedlings on the ridge in the places of previously prepared trenches, in the morning I make holes up to 10 cm deep, two holes in a trench. During the day, the soil in the holes warms up, and in the evening, after watering the holes with warm water, I plant cucumber seedlings from a greenhouse with a lump of earth and water each plant well.

IMPORTANT. The roots of cucumbers are located in the upper layer of the soil, expanding to the sides. Therefore, when the seedlings take root and grow, I spud the plantings. Hilling, however, has a beneficial effect on plant growth and increases the area of ​​soil from which moisture will evaporate and on which weeds can grow.

To improve the living conditions of cucumbers, after hilling, I mulch the soil between the ridges of the cut and dried grass. But first I water it abundantly! I put the grass between the ridges so as to fill the grooves completely. Mulch suppresses weeds and prevents the soil from drying out. An additional bonus - I always pick clean cucumbers. Even after rain, they are not covered with earth. And the warming grass serves as an additional source of heat for the cucumbers.

By the way, on the second ridge, where manure was not applied, I did not huddle cucumbers and mulch with grass, the bushes ached from the cold, and there was almost no harvest.

Cucumbers bear fruit abundantly when they have enough light. In the shade, the energy of plants is spent on the formation of lashes, and flowering is delayed and the yield decreases. I use two techniques to give the cucumber lashes better lighting. First of all, I place the ridges from west to east. From sunrise to sunset, the sun illuminates the ridge along its entire length.

And so that the lashes in the garden bed are more spacious and they do not block each other from the light, on the north side I place specially prepared stakes with small knots extending from the sides. Clinging to them, some cucumber lashes rise up, and the surface of the ridge, previously shaded, is better illuminated. This technique was suggested to me by a cucumber whip that grew in a garden bed under an apple tree. Clinging to the branches of the apple tree with her mustache, she rose high and bore fruit more abundantly than her neighbors from the "lower floors".

In the summer, if there is no rain, I water the cucumbers every evening, after a good rain I don’t water for 2-3 days. Good care and attention - and cucumbers yield an excellent harvest every year!

One greenhouse and one garden bed - and even in a not very favorable year, I pickled 27 three-liter cans. For comparison - in the "cucumber" 2010, I prepared 36 three-liter cans.


How to prepare a greenhouse before planting cucumbers

As you know, greenhouses can be of 3 types:

  • Polycarbonate greenhouses - the most popular and reliable (they are most suitable for growing cucumbers)
  • Film - also common, but they keep heat worse, are unstable to adverse weather events
  • Glass - such a structure is used least of all, it is difficult and financially costly to build it, while it heats up too quickly in the heat and cools down quickly when it gets cold.

And no matter what kind of construction you have (polycarbonate, film or glass), a greenhouse should be prepared a few weeks before planting cucumbers to remove all dust and dirt. In this case, it is necessary remove all ropesand, which were previously used for garters, and replace with new ones.

First you should remove all plant residues (unless you did it in the fall). And then carefully wash all walls inside and out... First, you can brush away heavy dirt, cobwebs with a broom. Outside, you can rinse the greenhouse with a water pressure from a hose or simply use a mop.

From the inside, it is advisable to wash the walls and ceiling with a detergent, a soapy solution is well suited (dilute 1 bar of laundry soap in a bucket of warm water). And use a sponge to thoroughly wash the surfaces in the greenhouse (apply detergent and leave for 10 minutes). And then be sure to rinse everything with clean water to remove soap residues.

Important! It is also advisable to disinfect the surface of the greenhouse and the soil, but this must be done in advance in the fall. This article tells about it.


The benefits of forming bushes

Forming a cucumber bush, pinching the tops, blinding the lower nodes, the gardener gains significant advantages over those summer residents who ignore these operations. The following positive points can be noted:

  1. The growth of lateral shoots is accelerated, which means that the number of female flowers increases.
  2. The blinded bush directs all its strength to the growth of green mass.
  3. Fruiting begins much earlier, the cucumbers ripen together.
  4. The palatability of the fruit is higher, the bitterness is less common.


Useful tips about the formation of cucumbers! Briefly


Conclusion

Growing cucumbers in a bucket is a fairly simple technology that is used in cases where there is little space on the site. Also, growing in containers is suitable as an additional source of crops. To get rid of unnecessary difficulties, you need to choose the right variety - it should be compact and not give stepchildren. How to grow cucumbers in buckets in the country can be found in the video.


Watch the video: Cucumber Farming and Cucumber Harvesting - Growing Greenhouse Cucumbers - Step-by-Step Guide